Friday

COENZYME Q10: ANTIOXIDANT AS USEFUL TREATMENT ADJUNCT: A REVIEW - Part III

This is going to be the last post before I go inactive on this blog till 22nd Dec 2006. Do keep checking back on this blog later! Happy Holidays!

Co-enzyme 10 and periodontal disease - Concluding part of this review.

Periodontal Disease:

Periodontal disease is primarily an inflammatory disease, which is initiated by the gram negative bacteria present in the plaque, which the in combination with certain host immune response leads to further progression. The presence of malnutrition or systemic disease acts as an adjunct to the primary factor i.e. plaque in the progression of the periodontal disease.

It is well documented by various studies that deficiency of folic acid and vitamin A, C, and B complex along with poor oral hygiene results in increased periodontal inflammation.

The activity of bacteria agglutinating glycoprotein in saliva is decreased in malnutrition, and this may promote enhanced formation of dental plaque and an overgrowth of potential perio-pathogens in malnutrition may contribute to periodontal disease occurrence. The malnutrition also affects the host response by suppressing production and cellular activation of cytokines, inverts the helper-suppressor T cell ratio, thereby affecting the natural defense mechanism. The CoQ10 are specifically utilized in energy production in cells. It has been shown that human gingival tissue contain coQ10 enzyme. The debate on the influence of CoQ10 in inflamed periodontal disease has been a long one. In 1960’s Tsunemitsu et al, and Matsumura et al studied effects of CoQ10 administration on hypercitricemia, showed that prolonged administration of CoQ10 alleviated the histopathologic alterations found in citrated rats. Lttarru et al 1971, found that gingival biopsies from patients having diseased periodontal tissues showed a deficiency of CoenzymeQ10 in control to those of the normal periodontal tissue which showed no deficiency. Nakamura et al in 1973 found that about 60% of the diseased gingival tissues showed deficiency of CoQ10 as compared to 20% of the control tissues. He concluded from the result that there was a deficiency of CoQ10 in the diseased gingival.

However there have been studies conducted in animals and humans which showed the contrary results. Several studies have shown varying results like, Periodontal disease dose not affect CoQ10 levels, no affect of administration of CoQ10 on the specific activity or the mitochondrial enzymes in gingival, minimal or no affect of CoQ10 administration on plaque or gingival indices, pocket depth or periodontal disease.

The effects of CoQ10 on the immune system of patients with periodontal disease were also studied. The T4/T8 ratio increased after 2 months of CoQ10 administration, while IgG levels increased significantly after 6months according to the study by Hanioka et al 1993. The affect of topical application of CoQ10 was studied by McRee et al 1993, and Hanioka et al 1994.The results of former suggested a very limited use effect after CoQ10 administration, while the results of the latter were inconclusive.

Further Research:

CoQ10 is known to improve the immune system by increasing the T4/T8 ratio and IgG levels. IgG is one of the important defense mechanism of gingival tissue as this immunoglobulin is found in high concentration in this tissue. CoQ10 is also known to improve the phagocytic activity of macrophages. CoQ10 can be combined with other host modulating agents like Sub antimicrobial Dosage of Doxycycline (e.g. Periostat), or Non steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (flubriprofen). The SDD is known to decrease the metalloproteinase enzymes in periodontal disease animal and human models. The CoQ10 which acts as a bioenergetic in the cellular function can act in combination with these drugs to give a combined or a synergistic affect. CoQ 10 could also be combined with other treatment modalities.

Conclusion:

The importance of CoQ10 as a bioenergetic in the cellular functions is established by previous research. The multifactor etiology in the periodontal disease makes the treatment a challenge. CoQ10 can be used an additional armor in the treatment protocol of this complex disease. The use of CoQ10 alone or in combination with other agents and treatment procedures is potential area of further research.

Refrences:




1 comment:

Anonymous said...

meanwhile I read a lot about Q10 an its benefit.
I'm confronted with a maligne mesothelion. Do you see any benefit to treat with Q10 or what risk is possible.
It was sometimes said to tact a daily concentation of 100mg/.
Your reply would be highly appreaciated.

regards.
L.NiendorfXCZ

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